Building a 1U Server (Bad A$$ 1U Server)

Building a 1U Server (Bad A$$ 1U Server)


Hey Guys! It’s Mike from The Geek Pub. And on this episode we’re going to build
this bad ass 1U server! Now this video is not about building the biggest,
baddest, and most redundant server we can build, rather this video is about building
the biggest and baddest server that we cram in to a 1U case that is only 19” wide by
12” deep. It won’t come without its challenges, but
in the end it is going to be worth the struggle and awesome! Now I plan to use this box as home network
server running VMWare ESX, meaning I will have multiple virtual servers running on it
all at once. This server will be actually be the second
server in a pair of servers forming a redundant cluster. These two servers connect via iSCSI to a Synology
RS2416+ to share a VMS storage volume contains the goes operating systems. This is awesome because it means if one server
fails the other one immediately takes over. On this server cluster I have several machines
running. I have a Windows 10 VM running HomeSeer which
is pretty powerful home automation package for controlling lighting and other aspects
of the home. I also have an Ubuntu Server VM running Plex,
which is an incredibly powerful home media server. Attached to Plex is a 10 terabyte volume for
storing movies, TV shows, and music, as well as family home video and photos. In addition I have several lab boxes including
Windows 2016 server, Observium for network monitoring, and some other boxes. I chose the Intel Core i7 6700K for this server
build. It’s a Quad-core 4 GHz processor design
for an LGA1151 socket that can be reliably overclocked to as high a 5 GHz. This is of course a Skylake processor. Now some of you are probably wondering why
I didn’t choose the new 7700K Kabylake processor and that is absolutely a fair question. I chose the Skylake, because this is the second
server in a cluster and I wanted this new machines to be identical to the original. It just makes things with VMWare ESX simpler. However, if you decide to build this box,
I would definitely recommend you step up the 7700k. It will work in the same motherboard we chose,
and costs only a few dollars more. Now if you don’t need this kind of horsepower
in your server, you could scale this chip back to a Core i5 or Core i3 and same some
pretty serious money. To install the CPU, simply line up the triangle
with the markings on the the socket, set it in place, and close and lock the CPU socket. This build has one interesting challenge that
you won’t face on most builds. The CPU cooler has to be less than 1 inch
tall and still be able to adequately cool a 91 watt CPU! This is no easy task, and I went through several
different CPU coolers before I found one that could actually handle the job reliably. The cooler I landed on that passed all of
my stress tests with flying colors is the K199 Active Blower from Dynatron. This cooler is barely 7/8 of an inche tall
and puts out an amazing amount of air. And it has a feature that is not only nice
to have, but necessary for a 1U server build! The top of the cooler is sealed and the cooler
has a side ejection port for exhausting hot air. This is required because when the cover is
placed on the case there will be less than 1/8” between the top of the cooler and the
bottom of the lid. To install the CPU cooler, add the backplate
rails to the bottom of the motherboard. They connect with the included double sided
tape. Flip the mother board and screw on down the
cooler after placing it on top of the CPU. The K199 comes with thermal paste already
applied, but you can replace it with better paste if you desire. Orient the side ejection vent on the cooler
towards the left side exhaust vents on the case. This will provide the most efficient airflow
pattern, resulting in the most optimal cooling at the lowest RPM. Because this is an ESX server, and it will
be running many virtual machines RAM is something that will be important – and lots of it. For this build I chose to use 32 GB of Corsair
Vengeance DDR4 at 2666 Mhz. This is the max amount of RAM that this motherboard
will support, and also the fastest. Installing the RAM is very simple, pull back
the tabs on the DIMM slots, align the notch on the bottom of the DIMM with the notch on
the slots and simply press them firmly into place at both ends until the levers click
back into place on its own. The case I chose is a 1U 19” rack mount
case from iStar USA. This case is bare bones and doesn’t include
a power supply, or even a fan. One of the nice things about this case is
that the rack mounting ears can be placed on either end of the chassis, allowing for
the motherboard ports to be at the front or the back of the rack depending on your preference. I’m going to mount the case with the ports
towards the front. This case is not without its shortcomings
however, and we will address of few of those shortly. The motherboard I chose is a mini-ITX ASUS
Z170 Pro Gaming motherboard. I chose this board not because of any of the
gaming specs, but because it allows overclocking and is 99% compatible with VMware ESX 6.5. I say 99% because this board like most non-server
boards will not pass IPMI data to ESX, meaning VMWare won’t be able to read the temperature
sensors. In my case this is fine, because the motherboard
BIOS will handle cooling and fan speeds independently of ESX and I have plenty of other devices
that I can read temperature sensors from in my network closet. Just to be clear, you can get mini-ITX motherboards
that support IPMI, but I am not aware of any that are supported by ESX that also support
a Skylake or Kabylake processors, overclocking, or independent chassis fan controllers. And by the way, this board supports Aura RGB
lighting, which means your server will glow through all of the open vents, if you’re
into that sort of thing. Installing this motherboard into the iStar
case represents a few challenges. Lets start with the fact that the IO shield
is about 3/8 of an inch too tall. This is a pretty common problem with 1U cases
and the good news its not too hard to solve for. Mark the IO shield with a pencil, and using
a pair of aircraft snips, remove the top portion of the shields and then place it into the
IO shield slot on the motherboard. The second challenge you may face with the
iStar case is that the motherboard standoffs on the bottom of the case are just not quite
tall enough to lift the motherboard to the proper height allowing it to align with the
back of the case and keep the CPU backer plates from making contact with the bottom of the
case. I solved this problem by using some 3M Super
77 spray adhesive to add two small nickel washers between the case and motherboard on
all four posts. This added the necessary height to the standoffs
and everything fit perfectly in place. Follow this up by installing the four post
screws and snugging them up. The Power Supply Selection The power supply I chose is a 1U variant from
Apevia. It’s a relatively small 250 watt supply
but it is more than enough to power our motherboard, CPU, SSD hard drive, and a 4 port network
interface card. The power supply just slides into place and
is attached by four screws on the back of the the chassis. Follow that up by plugging the power supply
leads into the the motherboard. Now is also a great time to plug in each of
the connectors from the case for the power and reset buttons along with the power and
activity LEDs into the appropriate pins on the motherboard. Also attach the USB block connector for the
case front USB ports. I chose to install two fans in the case. Both are 40×40 millimeter brushless fans. The fans are installed by screwing them into
the front of the case with the eight provided screws. You can position the fans to either exhaust
air from the cause or intake air. Be sure to orient them in the correct direction
based on how and where you are mounting your server in your rack. I will be mounting my fans in the intake position. One fan will be connected directly to the
power supply and run continuously at full speed. The other fan will connect to the chassis
fan connector on the motherboard where its speed will determined by the cooling needs
of the system. The iStar 1U server case supports the mounting
of two drives, however, our internal storage will only be used for holding the operating
system and some installation images for our virtual machine installs. This is because all of our virtual machines
will be booting and operating from a shared VMS volume on a Synology Rack Station 2416+
over iSCSI. I honestly, could have skipped the hard disk
completely and just booted my servers from a USB stick, but I wanted to provide for future
functionally should I ever use these for any other purpose or decide not use network attached
storage. The drive I chose is a Samsung EVO 850 SSD
in the 500 gigabyte variant. Again, complete overkill for me but likely
perfect for most of you who won’t have network storage. The iStar 1U case does allow for two drives,
meaning you could mirror two drives for better performance and redundancy. To install the drive, simply screw it to the
backer plate with the four provided 2.5” drive mounting screws, and then attach the
backer plate to the bottom of the case. Attached the SATA power connector from the
power supply. Attach the SATA connector to the hard drive
and then to the SATA 1 port on the motherboard. Since this server is going to not only get
its storage from iSCSI, but also be responsible for streaming movies and media throughout
the house, robust network connectivity on this box is of vital importance. For that reason I selected an Intel Pro 1000
VT Quad port card. This card is 100% compatible with VMWare ESX
and performs exceptionally well for the price. Since this card mounts sideways at a 90 degree
angle from the motherboard a PCIe riser cable will be required to mount it. First, plug the riser cable into the motherboard
and then plug the card into the other end. Orient the cable so that it will not interfere
with other components and then screw the card into the case card slot with the provided
screws. I installed the server in the 1U rack slot
above my existing server. It just slides into place and is secured by
four rack screws. That’s really all there is to it. I connected it to my gigabit network switches. loaded VMware ESX and I now have two servers
in a VMware cluster. I honestly couldn’t be more happy with this
pair of servers. Anytime I build a box I always stress test
it before putting it into daily use. In this case, I used Prime95 to calculate
prime numbers for 24 hours straight, all while keeping the CPU at 100% utilization. The CPU never thermal throttled meaning everything
is working as designed and we don’t have any cooling deficiencies in this build. The CPU cooler and case fans did run at 100%
during the entire time which can be quite noisy, so if you plan to run your Bad Ass
1U server at or near maximum load, placing it in a closet away from the main part of
your house might be a good idea. That being said, under normal loads the server
is extremely quite and barely noticeable do to the fans running at near idle speeds. Well thats all for this video! If you enjoyed it please do me a favor and
like this video, subscribe to my channel, and by all means share it with your friends. And hey if you hated, go ahead and hit the
dislike button and comment below to tell me why. See you in the next video!

About the Author: Michael Flood

100 Comments

  1. Do you have a video showing how you setup ubuntu/PLEX in VMware esxi. I know how to load VMWARE ESXI, Load ubuntu as a VM on ESXI. And I know how to load PLEX on ubuntu. I need to know how to get PLEX server to route on my LAN to get to internet etc… Did you setup a VM Virtual Router in ESXI??? Or did yo just assign a physical NIC to ubuntu/PLEX VM????

  2. Nice! only thing i would change is the sata cable. My OCD would bother me until I get a 90 degree cable. Thanks for the video.

  3. that was neat … plz give more guides for new people in server … i hope there is a big community for servers … i want to knkw more i m in a big hassel to make my own server or buy it from dell … i think making my own will be flexible and cheaper

  4. Would things have gone better if you had gone with the AORUS ZENITH EXTREME X399 plus 1950x plus 1TB of DDR4 3000mhz RAM and a EN9500GT so you can see what the server is doing and using a heavy duty twin fan Heat-sink and ESXI V6.5 Update 1

  5. Thanks man, how much it cost for this build??
    And can you make one for cheap build server compatible with esx.
    Or
    Guide to buy used server for real cheap and what to look for while buying it.
    Awesome man I watched your home network video, you really did put lot of work and security, for first time I felt we can build secure network at home with also managing security cams.
    Are those those cams just home network or you can access then anywhere?? If any where can you teach us how you did it and how secure it is???
    Thanks a lot keep rocking.

  6. What if we want to add network card and graphic card in this case? But you have only one slot!

    Thanks for the video

  7. Awesome video, any suggestions if I want to build standard Windows 2016 server using this setup? i am not particular to adding Vmware on the server. I am planning to build the server that will serve as File /Print and web server.
    Thank you

  8. Welcome to America…. Where you need to replace the two S from A.SS with a $ sign but can buy guns with 12 years old xD

  9. Lotsa cringe on CPU install and SATA SSD connection! Cool little server tho, for the most part. 😉

  10. Quite interesting. And you're confident. Helping me over come my fear of servers.
    I thought servers were that Giant dark thing that Sam Flynn connected his Nokia N8 to in the Tron movie. Didn't know it was just a flat case with standard PC components

  11. Did you install windows server on this? Because I'm having issues trying to get a Ethernet driver to load on a gaming motherboard while using windows server 2016

  12. How are you legally handling the Windows 10 licensing, i.e. how are you adhering to product usage rights? The Windows desktop license doesn't provide virtualisation on a cluster with additional licensing constraints. Windows desktop license can only be applied to an end-point. Also, as this is a high-availability cluster, how are you handling the licensing across both hardware devices (Windows licenses are applied to hardware, not VMs)?

  13. my personal media server which also uses plex but it also uses a gaming motherboard except mine was a used board with ddr3 ram and im using a standard desktop case but it runs fine like this one i hope is

  14. Great video mate.

    Something you could consider, the newer I7 Intel Nuc's. The current gaming Nuc's have fast i7 quad core cpu and 2 nics with tones of IO. This could be great for a very small high power server that is quite cost effective: https://goo.gl/6bgoUu

  15. Hi I like your video a lot. I am thinking of making a similar setup for my home lab. Could you let me know how much did the whole server setup cost and from where the parts were ordered. Thanks

  16. you say "robust network connectivity", while you present Intel PRO 1000 PT?
    well even if it comes to PING (yes I really mean PING and you really read PING) it is at least 60% slower then I340-T4 (not less then 8500ms for 30000 ping of size 1470 and with interval of 0.1ms between them without waiting for answer – fast/rapid send of ping)
    I use I340-T4 throughout my whole network (4 servers each serving a lot of stuff)
    I would not consider Intel PRO 1000 PT for anything these days
    I prefer Broadcom and QLogic for anything serious over anything older then I340-T4 and honestly even I340-T4 is going to be phased out quickly, as I need SRIOV, so I350-T4

  17. I know you did this like a year ago, but you could "phisicalize" this setup and pass GPU to the VMs for gaming or whatnot. Otherwise for a home lab, I would just use R720s or something which is cheaper and optimized for esxi. check out http://thehomeserverblog.com/esxi-lab-specs/

  18. Your videos are great, except you need to look at the lens of the camera not anything else. Its distracting when I can see your eyes are focused elsewhere.

  19. Anyone know where to find a docsis 3.1 card for any server in any format only i want to make a pf sense modem with 10gb capacity

  20. This may be a silly question, but can I run Server 2016 off of this server? I have to setup an active directory server. Any advise will be helpful. Thanks

  21. You could buy a used server for cheap on eBay. Plenty of Dell R610's with dual quad core Xeons and 96gb ram for $500. I used to build home servers too but going used was a lot cheaper for me. Replacement parts are plenty and the equipment is a lot more durable. It's all designed to be on 24/7 for years on end.

  22. Big props to you sir. You are an IT wizard. I am not familiar with the software you used but my joy comes from your hardware implementation. New subscriber here. Thanks for posting. 😀

  23. All nice but I need one that fits in my 10" rack. I have 4u as available space so that would be ideal for a server. Btw do they exist or do I need to go diy?

  24. Suggestion: Would have liked to see more of the build process rather than watch you speaking. Not trying to be facetious here, just wanted to get a better view of the build as you were installing it. i saw the shots of the completed build at the end, but still…. Maybe a suggestion for future vids?

  25. Why not just build this in an old pc case? I know showing off a 1u server is alpha nerd AF, but who wants to look in a utility cupboard at your server?

  26. Will you please guide how to make 4 bay hard drive rack storage with 2 generation processor because it is going to cost me so much here in pakistan

  27. I'd like to suggest that anyone building a server with an i3/i5/i7 and plans to overclock, that they delid and use liquid metal if they are comfortable.

  28. All of these comments are funny. Everyone here seems to be the armchair tech guru. I wonder how many of them make over 200k in the real world or just post virus removal services on Craigslist for $40

  29. I'd rather pick up a used Dell server off Amazon for $600-$1000. You can often find one with 2 6-core Xeon CPUs, 12TB of storage, an enterorise RAID card, and 192GB of RAM. Their CPUs are slightly dated and RAM speeds aren't as fast as modern systems, yes, but they're more than adequate for anything I'd need them for and could run 10 times as many VMs as your build without breaking a sweat.

  30. Good Build! The only thing I will say is that for my plex/media server I consider a ECC a must, makes me feel better. Of course, I know that only i3/i5/xeons can use ecc unfortunately. Also, adding a video card (even a 1030 gt) will help with 4k transcoding in plex substantially.

  31. Why would you want to overclock on a server tho?
    Like it'll only degrade the system's stability and decrease the life expectancy of the cpu.
    Not saying "Hurr durr ur dumb" or something like that i am just curious as to why you wanted the ability to overclock on a server.

  32. A HPE barebone with cpu and you will have much more performance and no cpu cooler struggle and the ability to run 15k sas drives. Consumer ssd’s are crap for server use

  33. Why not just go to a 2U server case? Seems like most issues would have been solved immediately. And to say a little quieter as well.

  34. I was about to ask "What if you had a GPU and used the hardware transcoding in that? Would it be faster?" until I realized that you need more network speed than the single gigabit, and 10GbE ITX boards are a freaking mess. They're still pretty cool, I saw some boards with soldered CPUs that run really decent, but they're expensive.

  35. OK I just go to this today, just a suggestion when running esxi, boot from a USB stick and run your swap on the SSD, this way you can run swap at near memory speeds and you will see a huge increase in performance. I also run a bunch of i5's as home sandbox servers in a cluster for HA, so don't let anyone knock your designs, use what works for you.

  36. can someone explain me about that redundancy cluster on 0:52 ?? what type of configuration is that if a server fails the other one takes over??

  37. Id like to know a bit more about the thermals, voltages on a CPU running in that config. It may not throttle, but thats not the only concern.

  38. Why bother to do that in the first place? just grab a 4/5 yo used server, it'll came with proper server grade conponents and will cost waaay less!

  39. Hi thereYou’ve done a great job on the server. It’s really helpful. Can you tell me how tall can a cpu cooler be to fit in this case, please?

  40. kinda older video but its reminded me of a question ive had for awhile. why run VMs when everything could simply run off one win10 server? its not like plex needs linux so im trying to figure out the benefits of this setup

  41. I don't understand why people run vmware on a server I tried running vmware on my desktop pc and it overheated, maybe I did something wrong but how can you run 4 virtual servers on 1 machine?

  42. are their any 1u chassis you can buy that will support standard pc form factor 'io' shields? without having to trim io shield with tin snips

  43. Hello, my question to you is
    I want to build a small office network
    It must support 50 to 100 computers
    What Server should I use?
    Is the server going to be a physically one
    is it going to be a workstation ( I don't think this option works due to the heavy load of so many computers )
    Do I need Vsphere
    vCenter or any other control console
    How do I setup my nodes ( Node 1 & Node 2)
    How do i do my storage

    How do I setup my ASA Firewall ( Probably a smaller one Cisco 5505 )
    How do I connect computers remotely to my ESXI

    This would be a wonderful set of videos for your station and much appropriated if you can do it well!

  44. hi I’m new to the server side, is this build still relevant today and wait would be a good sever to start with (Learning Path . Database Administration)

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