Hydrogen – the Fuel of the Future?

Hydrogen – the Fuel of the Future?

I think we can all agree: … …the sooner we decrease
our reliance on fossil fuels,… …and develop new energy sources, the better. Whether you believe in climate change or not,… …the benefits extend beyond just the reduction
in greenhouse gas emissions,… …and the supply of oil and gas will inevitably dry. Tesla pioneered our greatest hope
in this space to date,… …with the development and popularization
of battery technology. But, as we’ve seen,
they are struggling to meet… …the enormous half a million pre-orders
for the Model 3. Elon Musk’s self-proclaimed production hell
has resulted in delay after delay. Bloomberg estimates that Tesla have produced
around 12,000 Model 3s to date,… …with the current production rate
of 1,000 per week,… …which will gradually grow
to a target output of 5,000 per week. But those at the tail end of the pre-order line
could be waiting until 2020 to get their Model 3. This is just the tip of the iceberg. Last year, 72 million passenger cars were built. That’s nearly 1.4 million vehicles a week. No matter how successful
the Internet wants Tesla to become,… …they will never solve this issue alone,… …and the industry as a whole… …likely won’t be able to solve it
with a battery-only approach. The demand for lithium-ion battery technology… …is simply growing faster
than the supply of lithium can satisfy. So, it seems clear: … …we need a multi-faceted approach
to solve this problem. Another solution, which was the industry favorite
to take over from fossil fuels, not so long ago,… …is hydrogen fuel technology,… …and companies like Toyota and Shell
are working to develop this industry. It won’t be an easy race. But hydrogen may well prove to be
the tortoise that beats the hare. Hydrogen has three primary obstacles
it needs to overcome… …to become a viable energy source
for any industry. Safety, infrastructure, and cost. Let’s get the big elephant in the room
out of the way first. I know it’s on your mind. If hydrogen fuel cells are ever going
to make it to public roads at scale,… …the hydrogen needs not only to be safe,… …but to be perceived as safe. And yes, filling a gigantic, incredibly flammable balloon with hydrogen is a pretty bad idea. Hydrogen has
a relatively low ignition temperature,… …and a very wide ignition range
for air to fuel mixture percentages. The fact that it’s pressurized
makes explosions a worry,… …but it has one massive advantage
over oil-derived fuels. It’s lighter than air: it can be purged
using emergency valves in the event of a fire,… …and if it does ignite,
it won’t pool around the vehicle,… …engulfing it and its passengers in flames. Toyota even tested their carbon fiber tank
by shooting it with a .50 caliber round. The tank didn’t explode. It simply let the lighter-than-air gas
to escape and vent to the atmosphere. Hydrogen is arguably safer than gasoline,… …so safety isn’t a huge concern for hydrogen. But the lack of infrastructure is. Battery-operated vehicles
have had a huge head start in this space: … …the electric grid is a pre-built
transportation and generation network… …for the fuel
the battery-operated vehicles require,… and installing a charger in your driveway
or garage isn’t a huge challenge. Hydrogen doesn’t have such luxuries
to kick-start the hydrogen economy. There are a few large scale
production facilities in the world,… …with the largest being
Shell’s Rhineland oil refinement facility. It uses its own hydrogen production
in the oil refinement process,… …but the lessons learned from these efforts
have allowed Shell and its partner, ITM,… …to make hydrogen a viable option
for uses in energy storage. Last month, I was invited to London,… …to witness the opening
of the UK’s first ever hydrogen fuel pump… …to be included
under a fuel station canopy,… …a pivotal step
in making the public see hydrogen… …as an integral part
of the transport ecosystem. What fascinated me about this site was,
how the hydrogen got there? Transporting hydrogen in pressurized trucks
would be too expensive,… …as there are no large-scale
production facilities nearby,… …and although hydrogen can be transported… …within the already established
natural gas pipelines around the world,… …for use in vehicles,
we need pure hydrogen. So Shell and ITM took
the next logical step to keep cost down: … …they built a hydrogen production
and storage facility on site. The production facility is placed
just behind the main station,… …and is capable of producing
80 kilograms of hydrogen a day. The Toyota Mirai on sight
has a range of 480 kilometers… …with a full 5 kilogram tank of hydrogen. Vastly more than a full charge for a Tesla,… …but you must consider
the huge upfront cost of batteries,… …which do not last forever,
in this equation for cost. I’ll explore this battery vs hydrogen dilemma
more in a future video. But for now, let’s see how hydrogen actually works. The production process
of hydrogen is pretty simple. It uses a process called electrolysis
to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. The electrolyzer consists
of two metal-coated electrodes… …and a DC power source,… …which provides a negative and positive charge. Hydrogen will appear at the cathode,
the negative electrode,… …where electrons react with the water
to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions. These negative ions now present in the water
are attracted to the anode or positive electrode,… …where they are oxidized
to form oxygen and water. The rate of production of oxygen and hydrogen
depends on the electric current. But pure water is not very conductive. To achieve adequate hydrogen production,… …we would need to increase the voltage,
or increase the conductivity. It’s much more efficient to increase conductivity,… …so an electrolyte, in the form of salt,
is often included as a charge carrier. This is the oldest and most well-established
production method for hydrogen. For reasons I won’t go into, but will include
reading material in the description,… …this method isn’t suitable
for quick response times,… …with slow starter procedures
and safety concerns,… …making it completely unsuitable
for variable renewable energy sources,… …which has historically
made hydrogen prohibitively expensive. If hydrogen has any hope
of becoming a popular fuel source,… …we first need to get its price down,
to be competitive with batteries and fossil fuels. This has been a major point of research
for the past 50 years,… …and PEM, or Proton Exchange Membranes,… …are the primary solution now coming to market, that are facilitating a realistic hydrogen economy. PEM replaces the electrolyte rich water
for a solid polymer electrolyte membrane,… …sandwiched between the anode and cathode,… …with channels to allow water and gas
and solution to flow through. As its name suggests,
the PEM only allows protons to pass through. So hydrogen ions, otherwise known as protons,… …now become the charge carriers,
rather than the hydroxide ions. But the overall chemical reaction
is exactly the same,… …while requiring less voltage
to operate efficiently,… …and, more importantly,
has a rapid response time,… …making it ideal for integration to the grid
as an energy storage method. And this is where it truly drives down costs. The hydrogen fuel cells and cars
use this exact process in reverse… …to power their electric motors. The cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis
is completely dependent on electricity prices. If an electrolyzer cannot take advantage
of cheaper intermittent surge electricity,… …or use cheaper off-peak electricity,… …then it’s losing out on real cost savings,… …and can’t provide the valuable service
of energy storage for the grid. This hydrogen facility at the Shell station… …can form an important part
of the renewable grid infrastructure going forward. Hydrogen’s greatest chance at success
is by fueling a new economy of hydrogen,… …where natural gas pipelines
are supplemented… …with hydrogen produced
with cheap renewable energy,… …allowing hydrogen to gradually grow to be
the Earth’s primary energy storage method,… …and facilitating renewable energy
to become a larger part of our energy grid,… …without the worry
of weather impacting energy supply,… …allowing nations to stop depending
on the importation of fossil fuels,… …and instead grow their own fuel economy. One tiny group of isolated islands,
in the bay of my home county of Galway,… …is attempting to do just this. The Aran Islands are rural Irish-speaking islands, popular with tourists for their unique landscape,… …who have historically depended
completely on the mainland for fuel. There are no trees here,
no coal, no turf, no oil,… …but what they do have in plentiful supply
is wave and wind energy. They are the perfect candidates
to develop a mini hydrogen economy. An economy where they generate
their own renewable energy,… …and create their own fuel
to heat their homes and power their vehicles. Who knows? These tiny, obscure Irish islands
could be the birthplace… …of the world’s first self-sustained,
renewable, zero carbon, hydrogen economy. Thank you to Shell for sponsoring this video
and inviting me out to London to film on location. If you’d like to learn more
about the future of transport systems,… …Shell hosted a live recording
of the Intelligence-squared podcast in London,… Which you can listen to
with the link in the description. As always, thanks for watching,
and you may have noticed,… …we crossed a little milestone this week. I’m currently in Guam,
recording for some future projects… …who went over production,
or Wendy as I like to call them,… …and Joseph from real-life Laura. You can get a behind-the-scenes look
into our trip by following me on Instagram. It’s absolutely bizarre
that this little dream I had,… …of creating a place
to celebrate the work of engineers,… …has actually become
something much bigger than myself. I remember messaging individual subscribers, thanking them for subscribing,… …and marking off every 100 subs
on my chalkboard at home. Thank you all
for facilitating this life of mine. This milestone is just the first step. Real Engineering has just begun.

About the Author: Michael Flood


  1. This YouTube stuff is great and all, but it's an awful lot of work. My real dream is to become one of those lazy instagram models that just take photos of their food for $$$. Gis a follow on instagram and make a boys dream come true https://www.instagram.com/brianjamesmcmanus/

  2. Would instead of putting hydrogen in one put in water and it generated the hydrogen in the car, the energy used to do this would be made by the energy generated by the car. Or would it not generate power fast enough to keep a car moving

  3. hydrogen fuel is an economical dead end. This video is old now. battery technology has moved on exponentially. There are developed 1000 and 1500 watt hr/kg two to three times the battery density than when this video was made.

  4. It’s a fact that Hydrogen is, how can one politely say this, somewhat volatile. If it is exposed to air it will explode, don’t know about you but I won’t go near it.

    You’d better hope it doesn’t ignite and vent when it’s under cover.

  5. and in 2019 a hydrogen service station blew up, and all Hydrogen sales have been set on hold for safety reasons

  6. Last year an Iraqi physics teacher managed to make his 1987 Mercedes 230 work on hydrogen, he only needs 1 liter of water per week.

  7. Hydrogen suffers from the first, second and third things about fuel that all hydrocarbons also suffer from:

    1) Sourcing. Where does solar come from. How much processing is required to create it. 
    .Loser: Hydrogen. It has to be created somehow from chemical compounds. 
    .Winner: Solar. Sunshine is free everywhere on the planet. If you need more, get more solar PV panels.

    2) Distribution. It requires a societal cost (people are going to have to pay for it, in blood and/or treasure.)
    .Loser: Hydrogen, It requires complex and expensive infrastructure to move hydrogen around, before you even get to use it.
    .Winner: Solar. Electricity is available anywhere wires are strung up or you can hook up batteries directly to your solar panels/array (and screw the grid.)

    3) Storage. More efficient batteries are being dreamt up all the time.
    .Loser: Hydrogen. Storage tanks are prone to explosion, (as is hydrogen itself,) and become brittle over time from storing liquid hydrogen.
    .Winner: Electricity Batteries are cheap, static and long-lasting. They're getting cheaper and longer lasting every day.

    Conclusion: Hydrogen may be useful for some very specific niche markets, but it's not for general use.

  8. Ammonia is the mechanism to allow hydrogen be used at scale. It is safer to store, easy to transport (pipelines assist already dedicated) and doesn't easily ignite. Plus it can work in turbines and engines.

  9. There are serious problems with the "Hydrogen Economy". First,who is going to pay for the hundreds of thousands of on site H2 generating stations,when only a handful of H2 powered cars are on the roads? BEVs can presently "refuel" anywhere there is a plug. Hydrogen fuel cell powered cars are only 1/3rd as efficient as BEVs by the time you consider all the steps between making the H2 to power at the wheels. Right now,the cheapest way to make H2 is steam reforming,which releases a lot of CO2 as part of the process. The video says batteries will need replacing eventually,but if you look into it,Tesla guarantees their batteries will charge to 70% of capacity for 8 years or 160,000 kms,whichever comes first. You are probably going to trade in your old EV for something newer long before that. No wonder Elon Musk called H2 fueled cars "Bullsh*t".

  10. So, PEM is looking as a viable tech for producing H2 in miniature plants. This is interesting, don't know much about the product or the cost chain associated with it !! Can you make a detailed video on PEM. Looking forward to it.

  11. __not hydrogen is fuel of future because is need_must other energy for product hydrogen_archaicxn lord

  12. Nissan has a fuel cell that uses ethanol ready by 2020.


    The DOE just had a so called game changer with ethanol fuel cells as well: https://phys.org/news/2019-06-core-shell-catalyst-ethanol-fuel-cells.html

    Like Brazil did in the 1970s, with ethanol we can use our current fuel infrastructure.

    WIth the Nissan fuel cell, you can add enough water to the ethanol so as to make it non-flammable, making it completely safe.

    Gaseous fuels like hydrogen are inherently dangerous. Watch YouTube videos of people filling up their cars with natural gas and all the blow ups. As equipment ages, gaseous fuels becomes even more dangerous.

    Ethanol is also cheap. Today on the NYMEX ethanol is only $1.51/gallon.

    An unusable sub grade of gasoline(RBOB) is $1.91/gallon.

    Ethanol can be made from petroleum(coal, natural gas, and oil) like China, Indonesia, and India are doing with economical TCX Technology from Texas company Celanese.

    Ethanol can be made from renewable sources as it is here, which happens to be already much cheaper than gasoline.

  13. The problem with electric cars is they're being powered by electric, which is being produced by power plants, which run on fossil fuels. It's one thing to build the cars that are sustainable but the sources of power need more work as too many are still reliant on coal and other rapidly drying up resources. I understand that SOME of our energy comes from renewable sources. But not enough of it is.

  14. I'm a battery car owner and I'm not against Hydrogen – 
    In it's most basic terms, as this video tells us, you need to use electricity you make Hydrogen…. …. Okay, so, that hydrogen is pumped into the hydrogen fuel-cell car and converted back into electric charge to drive it. So, if someone can prove to me that this middle step is actually more efficient and cost-effective than simply putting the electricity directly into a battery, then I'm totally fine with it – The cars are in effect still electric cars with all the performance and low emission advantages of an electric drive train. I just have trouble imagining that all this messing around making hydrogen is actually "saving" us energy (and hence the planet) in the whole equation. 

    I know that hydrogen is massively more energy-dense as a storage medium than current battery tech, so from a pure engineering standpoint it is superior and in a lot of use-cases (long-haul trucks for example) it makes a lot of practical real-world sense. But what I see in reality behind this, is large oil companies protecting their business and their massive investments in infrastructure. Indeed whole economies could be disrupted and actually have a bad knock-on effect for everyone if we all suddenly stop buying fuel from theses companies. 

    However anyone can charge their car from a domestic supply, and most people have some choice who they buy your electricity from (in my case a 100% renewable vendor) or better yet, can produce your own electricity with solar or wind solutions. Meanwhile no ordinary person can produce their own hydrogen (not yet anyway). So in that respect, hydrogen just maintains the stats quo – something you would have to buy at cost dictated by the oil companies.

    I think a lot of folks can't get their head around charging a car overnight vs the "convenience" of filling it up at a gas station. I reality, it much more convenient, imagine if you had to pop to the local phone charging station every day to juice top your phone! But to be fair the fact you currently really need a driveway to enjoy that convenience is the number one problem for a lot of folks. If you could get let's say 100 miles into an electric car in 5-10 mins at a public charging station I think that would probably quell 95% of peoples issues. So I wonder how soon that will be achievable – and indeed if it will comes before the widespread adoption of Hydrogen cars. As the guy states at the start of the video perhaps there is a case for both solutions – ultimately the advance of battery tech and the people will decide.

    Like I said not a hater, certainly hydrogen is better for the environment than petrol or diesel and that's the whole point ultimately. And I know there are other factors like battery production and current battery shortages too. But in a nutshell, hydrogen still doesn't add up for me. If you got to end of this, thank you and well done! Have nice day y'all.

  15. "safety is not a huge concern for hydrogen" . So that tank that they shot in the test facility… lets say hydrogen flooded out of a hole with 10,000 psi gas behind it right… then lets say that hydrogen mixed with air…..then lets say the ignition energy required was rather low…. then what? You have hundreds of millions of these driving around and if anything ever happens to a tank you can take out half a city block. What about production, transport , storage? high pressure hydrogen trucks driving around pumping hydrogen into giant tank bombs on every street corner fuel station? I don't think saying "safety is not a huge concern for hydrogen" was a reasonable way to start this video.

  16. cars running on water could be very dangerous if two water powered  cars collide it might drown the people in the collision ( sarcasm )

  17. Its worth checking out the CSIRO (Australian Science Department) who have come up with a membrane to convert ammonia into its components allowing extraction of hydrogen for automotive and industrial purposes. Here's the link https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/EF/Areas/Low-emissions-technologies/Hydrogen-membrane

    By transporting it as ammonia you take away the dangers of transporting hydrogen.

  18. Why stop at hydrogen?
    You can add carbon, from carbon-dioxide (found in air) and have the same CO2 footprint.
    I mean methane or methanol (metil-alcohol).

  19. Well hydrogen has been around for a long time. But oil and gas companies bought the patent saidt they killed it

  20. the problem with electric vehicles is that yes, while they use cleaner energy the most of electricity is still produced by burning fossil fuels, so it isn't actually that much cleaner than regular petrol, diesel or whatever.

  21. There is another problem for the hydrogen-based energy system, hydrogen is super leaky, atoms are very small and these little fellows literally soaking through any atom grid. So you should like to "use it or lose it". Keep it in a tank for a while is wasting.

  22. There is just a little detail as big as a house you should inform the viewers. Hydrogen has to be transformed in electricity to be used, which incidentally Tesla cars will be ready for the change, or as soon as Hydrogen will become as cheap as electricity, and the transportation of it will be as efficient as transporting electricity. Until then please let us know about when the progress in the right direction in Hydrogen production and logistics will be achieved.

  23. The big advantage hydrogen has is it's ability to sit in cheap storage, you can produce hydrogen on the weekend and use it on Friday, that's not going to happen with batteries.

  24. Hydrogen powered systems could have been developed and utilize more than two decades ago. It's because it's so cheap and affordable it has not been brought to the market. Too many people would have lost money and too many people will lose money.

  25. Many, many, maaany years ago I red about the Hydrogen hydrats. They are the only one way even now about the secure transporting of hydrogen.

  26. you really think they cant make it run on water? sure they can and many people succeeded at it, but there is no money for oil cartels in it, so thats why they need to make smooth transition to other forms of energy which they also can control, and what about production of tesla battery and other electric components and after making waste when car is out? those are even greater footprints on environment,

  27. The big problem here is Shell, they want to keep oil business, earn too much or don’t have the technology to make it cheaper.

    In Japan 5kg of H2 costs around US$40 and the Mirai runs 650km/5kg (not 450km as is mentioned in the video). Toyota promised 200 H2 stands by 2021 and the cost of 5kg will be around US$10 in a few years.
    There are also H2 moving stations (on hydrogen powered trucks) that you can easily find on the navigation system.

    I want to see this video in 5 years…

  28. We can produce hydrogen from the excess energy generated by wind turbines,solar energy …through electrolysis of water,after this enegry restored using fuel cell when we need it,but the major problem of this technoloy it has low effeciency because the energy losses in the form of heat in electrolysis and fuel cell.On the other hand the PEM electrolysis and PEM fuel cell remains very expensive because they use the noble materials.

  29. "Fossil Fuels" aren't going anywhere. First of all, "F.F.'s" are found in soil layers below the soil layers that contain fossils. "F.F.'s" are created by the natural processes of heat and pressure due to the density of the Earth and it's nuclear core. Secondly, humanity has supposedly already experienced "peak oil", but we currently produce and use more oil than any other time. When you realize that the control and distribution of energy resources is the primary control mechanism of humanity, then, you can finally begin to figure out why "alternative" fuels and energy sources are being pushed upon us. We can't be allowed to have cheap energy because it gives us too much freedom. We have to be lied to, controlled and manipulated to believe that we are a disease to the planet, and must be limited.

  30. would love to see a study if hydrogen is suitable as a replacement for coal/natural gas, power plants emits high amounts of polution, and renewables is not catching up fast enough to replace it, maybe Hydrogen is better suited for that kind of large scale use.

  31. Could you comment on producing hydrogen from biogas.
    And then using that to power fuel cells.

    Also I was wondering if turbines could produce electricity from the pressure flow of biogas.

    I couldn’t find any articles on that.


  32. This video was in my Youtube recommended page…

    First, I just couldn’t listen to more than the opening comments, as all of them are just plain wrong.

    Petroleum is an inexhaustible resource. This is so true, that CIA no longer is trying to exhaust petroleum supplies from Saudi Arabia and other sources. Oil companies have found there is no such thing as a permanently empty well. You can over pump a well, but it refilled itself over time.

    Next, petroleum is an excellent fuel supply. It can be shipped quite safely, and generates little pressure in storage. It also is slow to evaporate, and stores well for long periods.

    Hydrogen costs more to crack from water, in electricity, than the horsepower generated from the hydrogen in the first place. It is not available in large quantities, as a straight elemental gas. Hydrogen must be liquified for concentrated storage, which is a definite safety hazard. And it is natively explosive once ignited.

    While hydrogen can make some sense for some limited purposes, hydrogen is a really terrible substitute for gasoline, in major and multiple use environments.

    Try again folks, this discussion is a dead end. There ARE better options…

  33. hydrogen is stupid as a fuel, it has extremely low energy density. ammonia has the same benefits of hydrogen, it can be stored as a liquid at room temperature in normal tanks and can be used in internal combustion engines.

  34. You jumped from saying that Tesla are struggling to keep up with demand (on the manufacturing side of things) to assuming the supply of lithium is insufficient to meet future EV demands- do you have any figures to back up the latter?

  35. Hello, I really like the video and learned a lot about hydrogen technology. Could I get more data/literature to study on it to get deeper knowledge about hydrogen technology for portable devices.

  36. it would be cool if a car used CO2 for fuel, maybe extracted all hydrogen and destroyed the molecule in the process. now there's a disruptor, Great video! inspires hope.

  37. @RealEngineering : Have you or can you revisit this topic in light of recent developments, investments etc in this space.

    I am curious to understand a few things that when you made this video 1 Year ago were still challenges

    1. Costs of FCEV Units
    2. Source of Hydrogen production like LNG Steam Reforming or Water Craking etc that are making production more common place etc.
    3. The Carbon and Methane footprint of such Hydrogen production methods
    4. Costs of associated Hydrogen production – is it dropping faster than predicted??
    5. Benefits of Onsite Versus Centralized Hydrogen Production
    6. Distribution of Hydrogen to FCEV Fueling centres

    7. Any Commercialization headway on the Australian CSIRO packaging and transporting breakthroughs announced last year
    8. MArket impacts of the Japan and Chinese pushes to Hydrogen economies

  38. Hydrogen may have more downsides than at first glance. If hydrogen is stored in high pressure tanks some of it will evidently leak through the walls of these tanks due to how small Hydrogen molecules are. This process is slow but it is apperent. This hydrogen then reaches the upper layers of the atmosphere where, through a series of reactions, it may deplete the ozone layes. For 10, 100 of even 10.000 cars this will not be a big issue. But if a whole society is to be hydrogen-driven  it will be a problem.
    I'm not a 100 % sure of the magnitude of this problem but is has been mentioned in some articles. I think we owe it to ourselves AND the planet to investigate this (possible) issue. We now have the means to do investigate the effects.
    And then : Electricity is used to produce hydrogen which is used to produce electricity…

    However, in the general energy-transition problem the solution that is pursued is mainly HOW it is generated. But the real problem is the amount of energy we need. Because I strongly feel that if we keep using (needing) and producing this ammount of energy SOME system wil ALWAYS suffer, no matter how it is generated.

  39. In this discussion, the terribly high price of hydrogen is always cited like a law. With more independent producers of "green" hydrogen (Businisses) everything would look different!

  40. Do you know why and how hydrogen gas has its volatile chemical and physical characteristics? Single protons of hydrogen atom are saturated with abundant chemstayphotons (photons that dissipated during chemical reaction). In addition, the stationary electrons of hydrogen atoms are also saturated with abundant stationary photons too. Therefore atomic size of hydrogen atoms is rather huge. It required quite substantial energy to electrolysis water into hydrogen and oxygen gases.  Fuel cells are one of many inefficient ways to producing electricity by scraping away stationary electrons of those hydrogen atoms where dissipation of heat from its single protons have been left wasted. Therefore it is truly inefficient. I have been researching on solutions to overcome energy crisis for decades and I realized the best solution is to engineering palm oil molecular structures to simpler and shorter carbon-chains. Really what we need is emancipating dynamic photons from nuclei of reacting atoms with oxygen in the air which a source of energy that we want, and palm oil molecules are saturated with abundant stationary photons. If you are interested in real discoveries, I would recommend you to read my book, The Unification Theory – Volume One and you will be amazed with lots of new, interesting discoveries. In God I trust..

  41. Hydrogen is good for rockets, production of hidrogen releases Co2. Hydogen is not cheap for consumption and production. Future is Electricity because it is cheap to produce and have high efficiency.

  42. when the power that be decide to financially supporting hydrogen fuel the infrastructure problem will be an obstacle no more

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